We use panel data on Israeli manufacturing plants to test two explanations of lower wages and lower productivity in plants with a higher percentage of females: (1) within plants women are paid less and are less productive, consistent with no discrimination, and (2) women are segregated into lower-wage and lower-productivity plants. Although the variation in productivity across plants appears to stem from differences in productivity between men and women, the estimates suggest no within-plant wage differential between men and women.
Wage Discrimination, Segregation, and Sex Differences in Wages and Productivity Within and Between PlantsJudith K. Hellerstein and David Neumark ,
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Wage Discrimination, Segregation, and Sex Differences in Wages and Productivity Within and Between Plants